Today in 1945, the United Nations became effective and ready to promote international cooperation. The organization begins its duty as the supreme governing body of all countries in order to foster world unity. The charter had already been adopted and signed on June 26, 1945.
With the ongoing World War II, it became a necessity for the Allies, (United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union) to formulate the United Nations Declaration that was signed by 26 nations in January 1942 as a means to opposing the Axis Powers i.e. Germany, Italy and Japan. The main objective of the organization is to ensure world peace, settling of conflicts between nations in a manner that is far better than the ineffective Old League of Nations.
Before the birth of the UN, there were numerous international treaty organizations and conferences created to regulate conflicts among nations, which includes International Committee of the Red Cross, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 among many others. Because of the huge loss of life in WW1, the League of Nations was created at the Paris Peace Conference to maintain world peace. The new organization was able to resolve some international disputes and establish international structures in areas such as aviation, regulating opium etc. Nevertheless, the League of Nations failed is some major aspect such as failing to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria and China in 1931 and 1937 respectively, and to curb Adolf Hitler's quest for expanding Germany that eventually led to World War II.
On April 25, 1945, the principles of the United Nations was formulated by the Allied Big Four (U.S. Britain, China and the Soviet Union) at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference. The meeting, which was attended by 50 government delegates and a number of non-governmental organizations, and presided over by the United states of America President Franklin Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill OF Great Britain and Premier Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union. To maintaining world peace, the conference created a structure for a new international organization in order to prevent future conflicts, to reestablish fundamental human rights, promote social and economic development, improve the standard of living of living, and provide humanitarian assistance.
After the war ended, it became the responsibility of the United Nations Security council, which consists of 15 member states and 5 permanent members (United States, Britain, France, China and the Soviet Union) to negotiate and maintain world peace. In addition, each member of the Security Council has veto power over the other.
The headquarters of the U.N. is located in Manhattan, New York City, and other main offices sited in Geneva, and Nairobi. It is financed by assessed and voluntary donations from its member states. Presently, there are now 193 member states as opposed to the initial 51 founding members.